‘Next few years are probably the most important in human history…’
Incheon, Republic of Korea, October 8, 2018: Limiting global warming to 1.5°C compared to 2°C could go hand in hand with ensuring a more sustainable and equitable society, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said on October 8 in a ‘Special Report’.
The report will be the key scientific input into the coming Katowice Climate Change Conference in Poland in December 2018, when governments review the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change. Nevertheless, limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society with clear benefits to people and natural ecosystems, the IPCC said in a new assessment.
“With more than 6,000 scientific references cited and the dedicated contribution of thousands of expert and government reviewers worldwide, this important report testifies to the breadth and policy relevance of the IPCC,” said Hoesung Lee, Chair of the IPCC. Ninety-one authors and review editors from 40 countries prepared the IPCC report in response to an invitation from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) when it adopted the Paris Agreement in 2015.
“We are already seeing the consequences of 1°C of global warming through more extreme weather..”
“One of the key messages that comes out very strongly from this report is that we are already seeing the consequences of 1°C of global warming through more extreme weather, rising sea levels and diminishing Arctic sea ice, among other changes,” said Panmao Zhai, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group I.
The report highlights a number of climate change impacts that could be avoided by limiting global warming to 1.5°C compared to 2°C, or more. For instance, by 2100, global sea level rise would be 10 cm lower with global warming of 1.5°C compared with 2°C. The likelihood of an Arctic Ocean free of sea ice in summer would be once per century with global warming of 1.5°C, compared with at least once per decade with 2°C. Coral reefs would decline by 70-90 percent with global warming of 1.5°C, whereas virtually all (> 99 percent) would be lost with 2°C.
“Every extra bit of warming matters, especially since warming of 1.5°C or higher increases the risk associated with long-lasting or irreversible changes, such as the loss of some ecosystems,” said Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II.
Limiting global warming would also give people and ecosystems more room to adapt and remain below relevant risk thresholds, added Pörtner. The report also examines pathways available to limit warming to 1.5°C, what it would take to achieve them and what the consequences could be. “The good news is that some of the kinds of actions that would be needed to limit global warming to 1.5°C are already underway around the world, but they would need to accelerate,” said Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Co-Chair of Working Group I.
Rapid transitions including the transport sector required
The report finds that limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require “rapid and far-reaching” transitions in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities. Global net human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would need to fall by about 45 percent from 2010 levels by 2030, reaching ‘net zero’ around 2050. This means that any remaining emissions would need to be balanced by removing CO2 from the air.
“Limiting warming to 1.5°C is possible within the laws of chemistry and physics but doing so would require unprecedented changes,” said Jim Skea, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group III.
The decisions we make today are critical in ensuring a safe and sustainable world for everyone, both now and in the future, said Debra Roberts, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II. “This report gives policymakers and practitioners the information they need to make decisions that tackle climate change while considering local context and people’s needs. The next few years are probably the most important in our history,” she said.
The IPCC is the leading world body for assessing the science related to climate change, its impacts and potential future risks, and possible response options. The report was prepared under the scientific leadership of all three IPCC working groups. Working Group I assesses the physical science basis of climate change; Working Group II addresses impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and Working Group III deals with the mitigation of climate change.
The Paris Agreement adopted by 195 nations at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 included the aim of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change by “holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.”
The report’s full name is ‘Global Warming of 1.5°C, an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty’.
For more information, including links to the IPCC reports, go to: www.ipcc.ch
Partners agree on actions to combat climate change
‘Taking Action on Climate Change’ examines changes in energy and transport markets
Joint efforts to offer sustainable solutions for aviation
Geneva, Keilaranta, September 13, 2017: Neste and Genève Aéroport are pioneering together to make flying more sustainable by starting to decarbonize aviation towards fossil neutral growth. Genève Aéroport is planning the introduction of renewable jet fuel for aircraft operations from Geneva International Airport; the target shall be at least 1% of the annual jet fuel consumption at Genève Aéroport shall be composed of renewable jet fuel starting late 2018. This is an excellent example of a state, an airport and a renewable solutions provider collaborating to decrease CO2 emissions in aviation.
“Genève Aéroport is exemplary in sustainability with its ambitious goals to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. We are very excited to collaborate with Genève Aéroport and their airline partners to show the way to the aviation sector. We both share the common view that decreasing CO2 emissions in aviation is crucial in combating climate change. This is an important step for Neste in implementing our growth strategy for renewables in applications outside road traffic fuels. Neste MY Renewable Jet Fuel is Neste’s sustainable solution for reducing CO2 emissions in aviation,” says Kaisa Hietala, Executive Vice President in the Renewable Product business area in Neste.
“As aviation is growing, airports have a crucial role in taking initiatives which aim at reducing environmental impact. Genève Aéroport is particularly pleased to work in this very ambitious project together with Neste, the Swiss authorities, airlines operating from Geneva, and locally established fuel companies,” says André Schneider, CEO of Genève Aéroport.
Aviation is the fastest growing means of transport and thus emissions will grow substantially. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has set a target that from 2020 onwards the growth in aviation is carbon-neutral. Currently, the only viable alternative to fossil liquid fuels for powering commercial aircraft is sustainable renewable jet fuel, which is one the most efficient means of decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. It can be adopted immediately without the need for additional investments in new fuel distribution infrastructure.
For Neste, the development of Neste MY Renewable Jet Fuel (TM) has been a long journey taking several years: from building proof of concept to ensuring the quality and performance that fully meet the aviation industry’s expectations. Neste’s renewable jet fuel technology and quality is proven in thousands of commercial flights by e.g. Lufthansa and is now ready for commercialization.
Neste is the world’s leading renewable diesel producer from waste and residues, and with its renewable diesel it has helped to decarbonize traffic by 33 million tons over the past 10 years. This is equivalent to 2 years’ emissions from the Swiss transport sector. Now this expertise and renewable solution is available for aviation.
Source: Neste Corporation
Searching for world aviation altitude record and new evidence on climate change
El Calafate, Argentina, August 2, 2017: The Perlan Mission II, an initiative sponsored by Airbus to fly a glider without an engine to the edge of space to collect ground-breaking insights on climate change, weather and high-altitude flight, reached a new high altitude in its second season of flight testing in El Calafate, Argentina. Pilots Jim Payne, Morgan Sandercock, Tim Gardner and Miguel Iturmendi have soared the pressurized Perlan 2 glider in a series of flights reaching a maximum altitude to date of 32,500 feet.
El Calafate, in the Patagonian region of Argentina, is in one of a few places on earth where a combination of mountain winds and the polar vortex create the world’s highest “stratospheric mountain waves” – rising air currents that Perlan pilots believe can eventually carry their experimental aircraft to the edge of space.
Over the next two months, the all-volunteer exploration team sponsored by Airbus will seek for the rare waves in an attempt to break the world gliding altitude record of 50,727 feet, set by Einar Enevoldsen and Steve Fossett in Perlan 1 in 2006. Along the way, the aircraft will continue to collect scientific data on the atmosphere made possible by the Perlan 2 aircraft’s unique attributes.
“Just last month the world witnessed another reminder of the importance of understanding climate change, with the fracture from the Antarctic ice shelf of an iceberg the size of the state of Delaware,” said Perlan Project CEO Ed Warnock. “Airbus Perlan Mission II will allow us to study a range of atmospheric phenomenon that ultimately will give us more accurate models of our upper atmosphere and the climatic changes that matter to every world citizen.”
The engineless design of the Perlan 2 sail plane enables it to collect uncontaminated air samples from a range of altitudes. Unlike a weather balloon, it can be steered, can stay in one area, and can take off and land in the same location.
Besides studying factors influencing climate change, Airbus Perlan Mission II will also provide insights into high altitude turbulence and radiation effects on pilots and aircraft.
“As demand for air travel rises, and we are faced with questions about how to safely and more efficiently transport a growing population, the insights that Airbus Perlan Mission II will be collecting are invaluable,” said Allan McArtor, Chairman of Airbus Americas. “Perlan’s discoveries will help us shape the future of aerospace with innovations related to design and engineering, more efficient air travel and even aviation science related to travel on Mars.”
Tune in to live flights of the Perlan 2 this summer on the Airbus Perlan Mission II Virtual Cockpit at http://bit.ly/VirtualPerlan2. Stay updated on flight schedules by following The Perlan Project on Twitter @PerlanProject and on Facebook at www.facebook.com/perlanproject.
For more information about Airbus Perlan Mission II, please go to www.perlanproject.org.
10 warmest months of June occurred between 2005 and 2017
Washington, July 14, 2017:
June 2017 was the fourth warmest June in 137 years of modern record-keeping, according to a monthly analysis of global temperatures by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York.
Last month was 0.69 degrees Celsius warmer than the mean June temperature from 1951-1980. It is surpassed by June 2016 (+0.79 °C) and June 2015 and 1998 (+0.78 °C) and only insignificantly warmer than June 2005 (+0.68 °C).
Except for June 1998, the 10 warmest months of June occurred between 2005 and 2017.
The monthly analysis by the GISS team is assembled from publicly available data acquired by about 6,300 meteorological stations around the world, ship- and buoy-based instruments measuring sea surface temperature, and Antarctic research stations.
The modern global temperature record begins around 1880 because previous observations didn’t cover enough of the planet. Monthly analyses are sometimes updated when additional data becomes available, and the results are subject to change.
For more information on NASA about Climate Change and GISS’s monthly temperature analysis, please visit: data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp